Unit III

Steroid Use in Baseball

Throughout the history of baseball, players have cheated whether by coating their bats or hats, or corking their bats. More recently America’s Pastime has found itself in the Steroid Era. The use of steroids, or PED’s (performance-enhancing drugs), is rapidly growing in the sport of baseball and now there are more people using them. Knowing the consequences for taking the drug players still take that risk.Players like Alex Rodriguez, Ryan Braun, and Roger Clemens are some of the players who have recently been caught. Now that they have been caught they will more than likely never make the Hall of Fame, no matter how remarkable of a career they had.

Steroids have been banned in the MLB (Major League Baseball) since 1991 but PED’s were not banned until 2003 (ESPN). Since 1991 baseball has seen a tremendous jump in offensive numbers from individuals. As one can imagine the home run numbers were at an all-time high for this era. While only three players reached the fifty mark for home runs in a season between 1961 and 1994 that number would be demolished by many sluggers. Mark McGwire was a player who was thought for doing steroids during this time of the mid 90s. A big reason for McGwire being accused of using steroids was for his insane home run numbers he was putting up. In 1996 he hit fifty-two home runs, fifty-eight in 1997. Not to mention in 1997 there were thirteen players to hit forty plus which had never been done before and was unheard of. Then during 1998 Mark McGwire would break the single season home run record of sixty-three by hitting seventy to only later admit to using a PED called androstenedione a drug that had not yet been banned by the MLB. After this the MLB then instilled a drug testing system to catch the use of any PED’s and steroids (ESPN).

Steroid testing began to be serious in 2004 when Major League Baseball started to hand out punishments. Not to mention that the test that were completely random. There is twenty-eight illegal substances that fall under the category of steroids that is banned from baseball. Five to seven players of the 1,438 players test positive for at least one of the twenty-eight illegal substances. The test began during Spring Training to see if the players were using anything during their offseason training programs (MLB). Failing one of the random drug test given by the MLB has consequences.

Consequences for failing a drug test are a fifty game suspension for the first offence, one-hundred game suspension for the second, and a lifetime ban for the third. The repercussions that come with failing a steroid base drug test has changed dramatically since 2004. When the test first started in 2004 the first time a player failed it was just counseling, then fifteen days for the second time, twenty-five days for the third time, fifty days for the fourth time, and one year for the fifth time.

One sad thing about the high percentage of steroid users in baseball is it effects the hall of fame voting tremendously along with the records that stand. For example, Barry Bonds will always have an asterisk beside his all-time home run record. When your average sports fan hears the words “steroids” and “hall of fame” in the same sentence they immediately think of players like Barry Bonds, Mark McGwire, Roger Clemens, Rafael Palmeiro, and Sammy Sosa. All these players hold at least some type of record in Cooperstown, New York at the Baseball Hall of Fame but it will forever have that asterisk beside it. Those five players would have no doubt been first ballot candidates if it was not for their drug use. In my opinion, the asterisk should always remain beside any of their records because they cheated the game. To be inducted into the hall of fame, a player must receive at least 75% of the votes and as soon as the player drops below 5% of the votes his name is taken off the ballot. Rafael Palmeiro was taken off the ballot this past year due to only receiving 4.4% votes. For the 2015 ballot, Sammy Sosa might see his named crossed off as he only received 7.2% votes in 2014 and is not expected to get anymore than that this upcoming year (CBS).

For the players who put up big numbers like Mike Trout who do it the right way are now being accused of taking steroids which is not fair. My friend, Wil Myers, who plays for the Tampa Bay Rays was accused of taking PED’s last year when he got called up to the major leagues because in the minors he hit forty-five home runs the year before. Then when he won American League Rookie of the Year the talk about it arose once again. It was not fair for Wil to be questioned because he worked hard to get to where he wants to be. For players like Wil and Mike Trout who have worked hard to get to where they are and still be questioned about using steroids is just pathetic. But, if they want to continue to play baseball for a long time they are going to have to get use to the speculations because former players have set this tone for Major League Baseball as the Steroid Era.

Steroids have ruined baseball to a certain point. There are not as many “clean” players in the game as there once was. Baseball is America’s Pastime and the typical American loves the game of baseball in some way. Every time a player has a very good season, the question will always be did he do it the right way? And, like I said before, that is not fair to the players who have worked hard. Until players take the respect for the game to another high and take the drug-testing policy seriously baseball will continue to the live in the Steroid Era. As a big baseball fan and a baseball player, I live for the day this era is gone because it is taking away from the great game of baseball.

Works Cited

Bloom, Barry M. “Mandatory Steroid Testing to Begin.” Major League BaseballMLB.com, 13 Nov. 2003. Web. 29 Apr. 2014.

Olney, Buster. “The Steroids Era.” ESPN. ESPN Internet Ventures, 5 Dec. 2012. Web. 27 Apr. 2014.

Perry, Dayn. “Where Do the ‘steroid Era’ Hall of Fame Candidates Stand Now?” CBSSports.com. N.p., 8 Jan. 2014. Web. 29 Apr. 2014.


Unit II One Act Play

Lamiya Bennett, McKenzie Call, Cedric Harris, David Newcomer, and Emma Pope

Eng. 131.02

Professor Lucas

2 April 201

Healthy Living in America

Character Guide

Radley Balko: “What You Eat is Your Business” Radley Balko is a senior editor at Reason, a monthly magazine that claims to stand for free minds and free markets.

Jennifer Goodman: Deputy Director of scheduling and events in the White House.

Michelle Obama: An assistant commissioner of planning and development in Chicago, the dean of student services at the University of Chicago, and vice president of community and external affairs for the University of Chicago Medical Center. This text comes from a speech she made to promote her, “Let’s Move!” campaign against childhood obesity at the NAACP national convention in Kansas City, Missouri on July 12, 2010.

Susie Orbach: Chair of the Relational School in the United Kingdom, is also involved in with Anybody, an organization “that campaigns for body diversity.” Orbach has worked as an author and a therapist for women’s health issues and even served as an advisor to Princess Diana when she was suffering from bulimia. Orbach has written several books on women’s health including Bodies (2009), On Eating (2002), and Fat is a Feminist Issue (1978).

Judith Warner: An author who has been featured in the New York Times and the New York Times Magazine, with her column “Domestic Disturbance” on November 25, 2010 (2010). In addition she has written four other books. Not only does she write but added to her achievements she also hosted the Judith Warner Show on satellite radio.

David Zinczenko: A successful man and writer who is editor-in-chief of Men’s Health magazine. Also, he is the author of several books and is illustrated in many big newspapers in the world and has made appearances on talk shows. David strongly believes that obesity in children is just as much the restaurants fault as it is the customer.

Michelle Obama hosts an afternoon lunch in the White House garden and a conversation starts on America’s Health.

Jennifer Goodman: Good Afternoon and Welcome to the White House. Mrs. Obama would like to thank you for being here for this lovely afternoon lunch. She will join us momentarily when the meal is served.

Jennifer walks to the doors and allows the waiters to bring out the meal.

Judith Warner: Oh wow this is a nice set up.

David Zinczenko: It’s a beautiful day too.

Jennifer arrives back with the First Lady, Michelle Obama greets her guests and sits at the head of the table joining the conversation.

Michelle Obama: Welcome everyone! I’m glad that you all can join me for this beautiful lunch that my staff has prepared.

Radley Balko: What? No cheese burgers?

Group laughs

Susie Orbach: No way! Us girls have to watch our weight!

MO: That’s a good point Susie. That’s why I really wanted you all to come here today! “There is an issue that I believe cries out for our attention and that is the issue of childhood obesity in America today” (420).

DZ: I agree. “By age 15, I had packed 212 pounds of torpid teenage tallow on my once lanky 5-foot-10 frame” (392).

MO: I know when I was growing up, “our parents made us get up and play outside. We would spend hours riding bikes, playing softball, freeze tag, and jumping double-dutch” (421).

SO: I believe obesity isn’t something only children battle. “Fat is a social disease, and fat is a feminist issue” (449).

DZ: Yeah “I got lucky. I went to college, joined the Navy Reserves and got involved with a health magazine. I learned how to manage my diet. But most of the teenagers who live, as I once did, on a fast-food diet won’t turn their lives around” (392).

MO: “But let’s be clear, this isn’t just about changing what our kids are eating and the lifestyles they’re leading – it’s also about changing our own habits as well” (430).

JW: “You need to present healthful eating as a new, desirable, freely chosen expression of the American way” (402).

RB: In all honesty, to me “the best way to alleviate the obesity “public health” crisis is to remove obesity from the realm of public health” (397).

MO: I agree. “We can offer people the best health care money can buy but if they’re still leading unhealthy lives, then we’ll still just be treating those diseases and conditions once they’ve developed rather than keeping people from getting sick in the first place” (424).

RB: “We’ll all make better choices about diet, exercise, and personal health when someone else isn’t paying for the consequences of those choices” (398).

MO: “Look, no one wants to give up Sunday meal. No one wants to say goodbye to mac and cheese, fried chicken, and mashed potatoes forever. No one wants to do that. Not even the Obama’s, trust me. But chefs across the country are showing us that with a few simple changes and substitutions, we can find healthy, creative solutions that work for our families and our communities” (428). And on that note, let’s eat!

Everyone begins eating.

Works Cited

Balko, Radley. “What You Eat Is Your Business.” “They Say, I Say” The Moves That Matter in

Academic Writing. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 395-98. Print.

Obama, Michelle. “Remarks to the NAACP.” “They Say, I Say” The Moves That Matter in

Academic Writing. 2nd Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 417-33. Print.

Orbach, Susie. “Fat is a Feminist Issue.” They Say, I SayThe Moves that Matter in Academic

Writing. 2nd Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 449-452. Print.

Warner, Judith. “Junking Junk Food.” “They Say, I Say” The Moves that Matter in Academic

Writing. 2nd Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 400-05. Print.

Zinczenko, David. “Don’t Blame the Eater.” “They Say, I Say” The Moves That Matter in                                  Academic Writing. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton,         2012. 391-94. Print.

Annotated Bibliography: Should College Athletes Be Paid?

David Newcomer

English 131 Section 2

Dr. Jane Lucas

19 February 2014

Should College Athletes Be Paid?


College sports have been around for a very long time. A recent question that has come up in the sports world is, “should college athletes be paid?” The popularity of college sports continues to grow year in and out. So much money runs through a university’s athletics program whether it be through boosters, concessions, tickets, or merchandise. This problem is more geared towards football and men’s basketball from big conferences such as the ACC, SEC, Big XII, and Big Ten. The criticism that comes up in actually paying college athletes is that the school makes money off of them, and they are not rewarded. Schools are making money off athlete’s jerseys and memorabilia, which none of it goes to athlete that make the sales possible. On the flip side, people say they’re student-athletes and student comes first. Therefore, the athlete is receiving money in either academic or athletic scholarships. As a college athlete these recent arguments about the subject are particular to me.

I have learned a lot from reading and studying three sources on this topic. From considering the question, “should college athletes be paid?” I came to a conclusion that this is always going to be a controversial topic; some will believe that student athletes should be paid, others won’t. My studies of “Should College Athletes Be Paid?” has left me with mixed emotions. As a college athlete it would be nice to pocket a little extra money but then again there is no way they can pay every athlete fairly. It will be interesting to see what happens with this argument as I continue to follow it.

Annotated Bibliography

Edelman, Marc. “The Case for Paying College Athletes.” US News. U.S.News & World Report,                   06 Jan. 2014. Web. 16 Feb. 2014.

Edelman’s article shows that college sports average $11 billion in revenue a year. The NCAA college basketball tournament alone brings in $770 million over the course of about two and half weeks. While all this money is coming and going through colleges, the student-athletes have no idea how much the school is actually making from them. An NCAA rule prohibits the athletes from knowing the amount of revenue generated by the athletic programs. Some goes to paying college coaches absurd amounts of money. For example, Nick Saban the head football coach at the University of Alabama, just signed a new contract paying him $7 million a year. Not to mention the fact that if you were to pay college athletes, Title IX, a law stating that for every male sport there has to be a female sport, would be a factor. The problem it would cause would be an unfair balance of money. Many basketball coaches already make twice as much a year than women basketball coaches so they do not want to cause anymore problems between male and female sports. The case that student-athletes should get paid is clear that they should in this article because of all the money that colleges make off of college athletics.

Marc Edelman, a professor of law at Zicklin School of Business at Baruch College. Edelman is also a sports business expert. He writes sports columns sometimes if they pertain to the business side of sports.

Mitrosilis, Teddy. “AJ McCarron: ‘I Truly Believe College Athletes Should Be Paid'” FOX Sports  on MSN. Fox Sports, 29 Jan. 2014. Web. 16 Feb. 2014.

Recently, A.J. McCarron was a guest on Fox Sports where he discussed why college athletes should be paid. McCarron brought up some very good points on why they should be paid, including, he explained, that the NCAA was taking advantage of athletes to sign their names to certain schools. In the four years that McCarron was the quarterback of the University of Alabama, the yearly revenue increased from $62 million his first year to $92 million by the time his football career ended. That is not including the revenue from players’ roles in video games and sales of their jerseys. He would continue to say that at some point something has got to give and players should get paid with all the money that is being made because of them.

Teddy Mitrosilis is a writer and editor for college football on FoxSports.com. Also he writes for ESPN and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill athletics.

Jackson, Scoop. “The Myth Of Parity.” ESPN. ESPN Internet Ventures, 12 Sept. 2013. Web. 16  Feb. 2014.

Scoop Jackson’s article “The Myth Of Parity” claims that college athletes should not get paid. In the second paragraph he writes that “There is no system of payment that can be put in place that is fair across the board to all students, all sports and all schools that participate in college athletics.” This statement serves to be true because some athletes are going to deserve to be paid more than others. Also, some sports bring in more money that others so does that mean that whatever sport brings in more money should pay their players more. As well as some colleges making more money than others. With all that it leaves a unfair advantage to some and no system can be put into place to make that fair. Paying college athletes takes away the point of a scholarship. Jackson’s article states that college athletes payments are acknowledged through their scholarships.

Scoop Jackson is a columnist for ESPN.com and ESPN: The Magazine. He wrote for the NBA for six years as well. Also, Jackson wrote for the basketball magazine “SLAM” and was with Nike for four years.